Ancient African Government and Political Systems

This section will focus on styles and procedures of government. We will look at governance, politics, leadership principles of ancient African empires and kingdoms. We challenge, especially Africans and people of African descent to compare modern leaders with these below…do they stand the test of excellence and integrity?


Congolese Federal Government System

  • About Congo/Kongo another scholar writes:
  • “was a flourishing state in the 15th century. It was situated in the region of Northern Angola and West Kongo.
  • Its population was conservatively estimated at 2 or 3 million people.
  • The country was divided into 6 administrative provinces and a number of dependancies.
  • The provinces were Mbamba, Mbata, Mpangu, Mpemba, Nsundi, and Soyo.
  • The dependencies included Matari, Wamdo, Wembo and the province of Mbundu.
  • All in turn were subject to the authority of The Mani Kongo (King). The capital of the country (Mbanza Kongo), was in the Mpemba province.
  • From the province of Mbamba, the military stronghold. It was possible to put 400,000 in the field” – PD Lawton,

  • Above is an depiction by Olfert Dapper, a Dutch physician and writer, of the 17th century city of Loango (present Congo/Angola) based on descriptions of the place by those who had actually seen it.


  • Depiction of the City of Mbanza in the Kongo Kingdom


  • Portuguese Emissaries Received by the King of Kongo, late 16th cent Duarte Lopes, Regnum Congo hoc est warhaffte und eigentliche , Congo in Africa (Franckfort am Mayn, 1609)

Kongo-Portugese Delegation














  • Monomotapa had a social welfare system. Antonio Bocarro, a Portuguese contemporary, informs us that the Emperor:
  • “shows great charity to the blind and maimed, for these are called the king’s poor, and have land and revenues for their subsistence,
  • and when they wish to pass through the kingdoms, wherever they come food and drinks are given to them at the public cost as long as they remain there,
  • and when they leave that place to go to another they are provided with what is necessary for their journey, and a guide, and some one to carry their wallet to the next village. In every place where they come there is the same obligation.”




Zulu Kingdom (Military Focus)

Shaka/Chaka Zulu spearheaded warfare

  • Stabbing spear
  • Throwing spear
  • Short rapier
  • Mace
  • Fist sized far left
  • 2nd last square square mace
  • Studded knobkerries





  • Revolutionized warfare in southern Africa
  • Colour coded shields
  • Also used by Genghis Khan, Sun Tzu and Hitler!
  • Younger boys for carrying – supplies
  • Shaka transferred traditional customary service to himself
  • Sustained mobilization not war levies


  • At 20 – they joined amabutho – regiments.
  • Marriage was a privilege only bestowed by the king
  • Shaka discarded sandals so warriors would run faster
  • Military training included hardening of the soles of the feet



  • Impi warriors were trained as early as 6years old (like Spartans)
  • By age 20 they were highly experienced in warfare
  • Colour gradients and insignia on shields to determine age, rank and regiment
  • Forced marches of 50 miles a day (100ks)
  • Awards of different types of brass rings and necklaces given for valor



Ethiopia and Amazing Facts About Greece and Troy

  • Military
  • Top left General
  • Top right infantry
  • Bottom centered – gun corps
  • Abyssinian/Ethiopian warriors (they are from the 1890’s, but regardless, the military stayed relatively the same from the 1400’s onward).
  • Randon fact, many southern African languages have indigenous and pre-colonial words for ‘gun’. Scholars have generally been reluctant to investigate or explain this fact. Guess it just doesn’t fit with the Origin of Species for the preservation of the ‘favored races’


  • In Greek mythology, Memnon (Greek: Mέμνων) was an Ethiopian
  • As a warrior he was considered to be almost Achilles’ equal in skill.
  • During the Trojan War, Homer writes in The Odyssey that he brought an army to Troy’s defense.
  • Memnon’s death sounds similar to the death of another of Troy’s heros: Hector, another defender of Troy whom Achilles also killed.
  • So after Achilles killed Memnon
  • Story goes that Zeus was moved by Eos’ tears and granted him immortality.
  • Memnon’s death is spoken about in great length and detail in the lost epic Aethiopis
  • composed after The Iliad circa the 7th century BC.
  • Quintus of Smyrna records Memnon’s death in Posthomerica.

  • The image to the left is an engraving supposedly of what Memnon looked like
  • Conclusion? Greek traditions includes Africans…but you ever scene any Greek art depicting black people? If not, why not?
  • By now you know the answer or at least you should.
  • Evolution has made the African simply the birthplace of homonids and not a continent filled with advanced cultures.
  • In the prologue to his Prose Edda, the Icelandic scribe Snorri Sturluson states
  • Memmnon was one of the kings present at Troy
  • who married Troana, the daughter of king Priam.
  • He further relates that they gave birth to
  • their son Tror, that is, Thor, born with hair “fairer than gold”,
  • who later becomes king of Thrace ancestor to all the Germanic kings



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